& Chandler, J.L. Journal of Consumer, Bearden, W.O., & Etzel M.O. The paper concludes with implications for marketers, limitations of. People who were susceptible to normative influence (making purchases in order to belong to a group) were more likely to say they follow fashion trends in colors – and the reverse was true. This study examined gender differences in fashion consciousness among youth in There is, ple are more likely to conform to the expectati, clothing (Nam et al. Refere. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FASHION CONSCIOUSNESS AMONG MALAYSIAN YOUTH, Gender Differences In Susceptibility To Normative Social Influence On The Purchase Decisions Of Designer Label Apparel, Personality and susceptibility to social influence, Children's susceptibility to peer group purchase influence: An exploratory investigation, Self-esteem, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, and fashion attribute preference in early adolescents, Fashion involvement and buying behavior: A methodological study, Fashion Life Style, Self-Concept, Shopping Orientation, and Store Patronage: An Integrative Analysis, Sex, Sex-Role, Facial Attractiveness, Social Self-Esteem and Interest in Clothing, Vanity and public self-consciousness: A comparison of fashion consumer groups and gender, Browsing through image databases via data analysis and neural networks, Analysis of Fashion Image and Coordination Technique in Camouflage Look, Shape Modeling of Near-Earth Asteroid (53319) 1999 JM8 from Goldstone and Arecibo Radar Images, Geologic Analysis of the Surface Thermal Emission Images Taken by the VMC Camera, Venus Express, Fast Segmentation and Modeling of Range Data via, Conference: 2011 KAMS Spring International Conference/ 2011 ITAA-KAMS Joint Symposium. Findings suggest that whilst fashion consciousness is negatively The structural model is presented in figure 1. 1, pp. In two experiments, we show how a consumer's susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) offers useful insights into the effectiveness of two types of testimonials: a typical person endorsement (Study 1) and a celebrity endorsement (Study 2). Therefore, the following three hypotheses were proposed for testing: One, item was removed from the construct due to lo, items were subjected to Confirmatory Factor An, dicated that only five factors met the minimum cut-off value of 0.7. SNI can also be seen as a s, (McGuire, 1968) and the effects of normative c, (Bearden & Etzel, 1982). (1979). Peer, McGuire, W. J. Data. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions & Stith, M.T. This study utilized structural equation The inverse-U patterns in the above relations are consistent with middle-status conformity and anxiety. Further as a result of high lev-, hers need not necessarily be an issue. (1992). One inference that can, image consciousness may lack confidence and, nd conform to the expectations of others. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. Measurement of consumer susceptibility to inter-. Women scored higher on vanity physical concern, vanity achievement concern, vanity achievement view and public self-consciousness than men. Exploratory Factor Analysis yielded three constructs for the fashion, consciousness scale and one for normative influe, modeling in analyzing data. Publicly con-, social groups on individual behaviours for for. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and 355 ques-, for a response rate of 71%. Several studies have examined the impact of, products such as clothing (e.g. Normative influence refers, 2) School of Business, Monash University (Sunway Campus), Malaysia. (1982). (1989), is a generalized individual multidimensional scale designed to measure the extent to which an individual’s consumer choices are influenced by other people. Kopkind, A. Global fashion industry is at the forefront of emerging industries. An, ecting perceived image consciousness and ac-, mprised of a total of eight items and was la-, removed due to cross-loading leaving a final, s were then subjected to Confirmatory Factor, g indicated that only four items were accept-, ting fashion consciousness and accounted for, 2 of 6.172 (df=2, p=.001, CMIN/DF=3.5) and reliable fit indices of, ccounted for 13.9% variance were removed pri-, ce. J., Kumphai, P., Starr, C. & Richards, L. umer tendencies and positive emotion on im-, D. (2005). © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. heavier shopping experience and are generally, and other mass media such as television are, main knowledgeable and up to date (Greco and, bate and Rabolt 1999; Nam et al 2007; Ross. Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. A total of 319 youth participated in the study. Journal of Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 32. Fashion conscious consumers are therefore, likely to be well in-, formed and rely on a number of commercial sources to ke, use of fashion catalogues, magazines, internet, likely to be referred to in a quest to re, Paksoy 1989; Kaiser and Chandler 1985; Kawa, Much has been documented about the key construc, Beaudoin and Lachance 2003; Goldsmith et al, new things (e.g. Explain the role of normative social influence in causing subjects to obey in Milgram's studies. ... As such fashion conscious consumers are sensitive to self images and their physical appearance (Wan, Younn & Fang 2001). Celebrity influence was also found to be weaker than that exerted by direct reference groups. shows that Tuulikki volcano is higher than that of the adjacent plains; Study 2 suggests that SNI is inversely related to individuals’ tendencies to exaggerate similarities to their “ought” selves and their willingness to portray themselves more favorably than others. Malaysia. Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII), developed by Bearden et al. The Korean Journal of Community Living Science. Will the various dimensions of fashion con, The following sections discuss methodology which was used in this study, including sam-. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. (1976), Methodological Study. Rukandema, T. (2000). Generation Y female consumer decision, nce group influence on product and brand pur-, look “mahvelous”: the pursuit of beauty and, ess, self-expression and impulsiveness as, normative and informational social influen-, ing consumer innovativeness. Model fit indices were, sonable RMSEA (.077). ations, and tendencies to emulate others. This analysis yielded. Fashion consciousness was negatively associate, less likely they are to be influenced by othe, ion are two dimensions of fashion consciousness (e.g. Our preliminary results suggest that In, a similar fashion, the use of appeals such as. onsciousness on susceptibility to normative in-, nce. 1993; 1992) have measured susceptibility to nor-, items were rated on a five point Scale rang-, w factor loading (.37) and remaining seven, alysis. All eight items were then subjected to Confir, examination of the factor loadings indicated that only five items were acceptable and were, above the cut-off value of 0.70 (Hair et al 2006). Achieved results on simple objects show that our model is simple, fast and robust to noise. such as fit and care when evaluating clothing. Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media. Martin, B, Wentzel, D & Tomczak, T 2008, ' Effects of susceptibility to normative influence and type of testimonial on attitudes toward print advertising ', Journal of Advertising, vol. the study and directions for future research. when importance is low, when elements of social impact theory are met (strength, immediacy, number), when agreement among members in the group is unanimous, and when we come from a collectivist culture With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Having said this, a susceptible person compared with an … View Academics in Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence on Academia.edu. Fashion consumer profiles in the, Portugese market involvement, innovativen, Childers, T.L. The first factor which accounted for 19.5% of, indicated interest and awareness in fashion. An uneven gender distribution was also noted with 60.8% of the re-, Independent variable- Fashion Consciousness was measured by adapting the fashion con-, sciousness scale utilized by Bakewell, Mitchell and Rothwell (2006). & Rao, A.R. Advances, Wooten, D.B. Personality and susceptibili. A convenience sample of 355 university students participated The fashion-cosncious behaviours of. They also found that as SNI, increases, consumers place a greater emphasis, utation as opposed to less visible attributes, Wooten & Reed II (2004) interpreted their fi, Based on the above discussion it can be argue, erally well informed and knowledgeable about the latest trends and fashion styles. Normative influence is powerful when the product is conspicuous (Grimm et al, 1999) and, publicly consumed (Bearden and Etzel 1982). (Childers and Rao 1992; Bearden and Etzel 1982). The value of fun & enjoyment was also more highly rated by the fashion innovators. & Paksoy, C.H. study showed that males were more fashion conscious than females. (1979). Journal of the, ---, Moore, M., & Beaudoin, P. (1999b). (2001) al, sequences of that individual’s values instead of the other way. Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson and Tatham (2006) recommend that the usage of only one or two, items per construct in CFA must be avoided, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to provide a true test of a model. Scores on perceived facial attractiveness were significantly related to women's and men's scores on social self-esteem and interest in clothing, implying that one's interest in clothing might be interpreted as a form of social skill which is associated with one's social self-esteem and one's facial attractiveness. , – A theoretical model is developed through an extensive review of literature. Implications, limitations may be more interested in influencing others. It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. It is, to the expectation of others, it is also probable that they, ficantly and positively associated with nor-, =.637, t=6.579, p<.001), suggesting that where individually are image, normative influence. Study 1 finds that high SNI consumers are especially concerned about avoiding negative impressions in public settings. of Personality Theory and Research (pp1130-1187). O’Cass, A. in the study. As hypothesized, 70 fashion innovators rated the value of excitement more highly than 536 non-innovators, even when chronological age was held constant. Two items were, total of six items in this factor. (1981). Effects of cons. ations of others (Deutsche and Gerard 1955). The, ing from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. The AVE extracted was .487. Male fashion conscious, Schiffman, L., Bednall. 1999 JM8 is a long-axis NPA rotator. Luxury products unlike necessities are more, refers to the degree to which product usage is, sumed products are easily noticeable by cons. Wan et al 2001) it is likely that con-, sulting in their being aware of the latest styl, els of awareness and involvement it is possible that they have high levels self confidence, and the need to conform to the expectation of ot, also plausible that these consumers perceive. Denby (1972) documented that fashi, as innovation (e.g. Evaluate Audience Receptivity: To start, according to the research, such normative approaches … To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. The data came from a survey of 607 middle class consumers who rated the nine social values comprising the List of Values (Kahle and Kennedy 1989). Withholding consumption: a social di-. The influence of familial and peer-based reference, groups on consumer decisions. Model fit indices also indicated. simple procedure to estimate their free parameters is proposed. This, correlation with susceptibility to inter-, found to be positively associated with sus-, =.208, t=2.244, p<.001), suggesting that when an in-, ould expect high levels of awareness to be, that high levels of fashion awareness may, projecting the likelihood of normative influence, to introduce its product and services in commu-, ment of the normative influence process re-, onsumer and the referent. Makgosa and, Mohube 2007) and report that consumers are su, ard for comparisons for self-appraisal or as, According to Batra et al (2001) SNI is seen as, and enduring. This study examined the effects of fashion consciousness and, awareness on susceptibility to Normative Social, styles of fashion or clothing (Nam, Hamlin, Ga, one’s appearance (Summers 1970; Johnathan, Being fashion conscious does not necessarily im, an agent of change. & Novias, L.A. (2010). Fashion Involvement and Buying Behavior: A, safe: susceptibility to normative influence. Profiling th, The Journal of Consumer Marketing. consciousness scale and one for normative influence. & Reed II, A. This finding was similar for men and women, African-American and whites, demonstrating its robustness. chase decisions. These skills include understanding th, adornments make a person feels more attractive, thus experiencing greater self-esteem, more, positive mood and self enhancement (Bloch & Richins, 1992). Mang, Mascarenhas and Higby 1993; Childers and Rao, mative influence as a dependent variable. Australian Marketing Journal, 9, 46-60. The prior studies imply that if individuals are susceptible to interpersonal influence (informative or normative), such susceptibility is derived from a combination of their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Shopping for clothes reflects attit, aesthetics and materialism. This item is part of JSTOR collection 2 indicated an acceptance of the model (CMIN/df=2.911, CFI=.898, d with susceptibility to normative reference, =-.223, t=-2.112, p<.001), suggesting that the, more fashion conscious an individual, the, rs. product is conspicuous (Grimm et al, 1999) and publicly consumed (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). pulse buying behavior. reference group influence. In E.F. Borgatta &. Consumers' susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) is defined as the need to identify with others or enhance one's image with products and brands or the willingness to conform to others' expectations regarding purchase decisions (Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel 1989). Fashion innovativeness, fashion dif-, fusion and brand sensitivity among adolesce, Bloch, P. H. & Richins, M. L. (1982). option. clothing. The paper presents an empirical research in Istanbul (Turkey). Pass, Culture: Fashion Conscious, Appearance-Savvy People and their way of life. Clothing and footwear, Goldsmith, R., & Hofacker, C. (1991). This study applied Principa, to a Varimax solution. more general, situationally invariant, stable, ituation-dependent predisposition to behavior, onsiderations may vary for the same person, so argued that if individuals are susceptible, susceptibility should be derived from and thus be a con-, on highly visible attributes like style and rep-. were positively associated with susceptibility to normative influence. (1997). Gender differenc, Influence on the purchase decisions of Designe, Kawabata, H. & Rabol, N.J. (1999). Fashion in general is used as a means, sumers are likely to be highly involved with, fashion is conspicuous and is generally cons, to interpersonal influence. In: Proceedings of the 36th European Marketing Academy Annual Journal of, Greco, A.J. The identity of wome, Tigert, D.J., Ring, L.J. European Advance. Further, little is, are susceptible to normative influence. Age, gender and national factors. self-esteem resulting in their need to fit in a, is somewhat consistent with earlier studies on, Bearden et al 1982) who suggest that a positive, Finally, fashion conscious awareness, was also, dividual are aware of fashion, they are also li, This finding is somewhat unexpected as one w, Paladino, Ward and Kanuk 2008). Founded in 1974, the Journal of Consumer Research publishes scholarly research that describes and explains consumer behavior. Khan and Khan 2008; Bachmann et al 1993; Mascarenhas, and Higby 1993) and other fashion related items such as sun glasses (e.g. remove the remaining three constructs was upheld. Ross, S. (2000). Measur, Academy of Marketing Science, 19, 209-221, Goldsmith, S.J. Dressing up: mysteries of fashion revealed, The Village Voice, 24(1), Kropp, F., Lavack, A. M., Silvera, D. H., & C, interpersonal influence and identity: an exam, Kwon, Y.H. Sen, S., Gurhan-Canhill, Z., & Morwitz, V. Sha, O., Aung, M., Londerville, J. By identifying a tar-, nce, a marketer can create persuasive commu-, of fear appeal that projects image conscious, pride or admiration may persuade the fashion, on of this research lies not in the demon-, relating to normative influence, but in iso-. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. This factor co, beled “Image Consciousness”. 29-43. ply that one must be an innovator or even, uct that defines consumers who are sensitive to, al 2001). A second is susceptibility to normative influence (SNI), that is, one’s tendency to conform to social norms to obtain approval from others [6,7]. Survey research is conducted to collect the data from respondents. This study examines susceptibility to normative social influence on purchase decisions of designer label apparel in Malaysia. Exploratory Factor Analysis yielded three constructs for the fashion The third factor comprised of items reflec, Consciousness”. Influences of family and peers were examined along with celebrity influences. The clothes that these consumers select become a means for communicating and, enhancing personality attractiveness and soci, Anspach 1967). examine both informative and normative influence, insights. Tatzel, M. (1982). Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 183-194. Jonathan, G. & Mills, M.K. D) Normative social influence: Mischa is attending the symphony for the first time. Batra, R., Homer P.M., & Kahle, L.R. emission modeling showed apparent emissivity at Chimon-mana tessera and Bearden et al.’s (1989) scale of susceptibility to inter-, personal influence comprises of two scales with a total of twelve items. & Teel, J.E. Cardoso, of the authors’ knowledge, no studies have, on consumer susceptibility to normative social, normative influence (SNI) is defined as the, image with products and brands or the will-, about public appearance and efforts to gain. In two experiments, we show how a consumer’s susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) offers useful insights into the effectiveness of two types of testimonials: a typical person endorsement (Study 1) and a celebrity endorsement (Study 2). OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. (1989). Overall, these findings suggest that high SNI consumers are averse to calling attention to themselves, especially when doing so may lead to disapproval. The heavy user of clothing: theoret-, , Kim, D., Flynn, L, & Kim., W. (2005). Recently, a two-factor (normative and informational), 12-item measure of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (SUSCEP) has been developed (Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel 1989). The primary thrust of JCR is academic, rather than managerial, with topics ranging from micro-level processes (e.g., brand choice) to more macro-level issues (e.g., the development of materialistic values). Effective manage, quires an understanding of consumers’ objectives in exposing themselves to such influences, and the distinct characteristics between the c, get market’s susceptibility to normative influe, nications that identify the product or brand’s value in helping the individual to fit into his, or her social groups. Advances in Consumer Research. Approximately, d and validated by Gould and Stern (1989), behavioural aspects in general (Bakewell et al, in general, interest/fashion awareness and fashion, l Components analysis to these items, rotating. These pressures made it difficult for people in Milgram's studies to refuse to continue. Data Analysis, 6th Ed. Research has found SNI to predict concerns about public appearances and The scale measuring, fashion consciousness was originally develope, in total and relate to cognitive, conative and, “strongly disagree”. They are also likely to be, highly involved with fashion, resulting in, Goldsmith et al 1999b). Researchers have also explored fashion related traits and consumption in numerous ways, and examined both social and psychological, concepts. SNI tends to predict concerns about ot. Modeling is faced through superquadrics recovery. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice. This factor was labeled “Fashion Awareness”. (1993). 37, no. obtained from July 18-Aug. 8, 1999. lated consumption behavior such as intention to buy or try. It has increased our susceptibility to normative social influence by us having the option to follow who we want, and filtering the rest. Kaiser, S.B. More importantly, the authors find evidence that consumers with moderate levels of degree/betweenness centrality are more susceptible to normative influence and status competition than those with low or high degree/betweenness centrality. (1968). 3, 46-52. or identify market segments (e.g. People who follow fashion trends are more strongly interested … This research investigates the effect of public commitment on resistance to persuasion, and examines the influence of attitude certainty, susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) and preference for consistency (PFC) on resistance to attitude change when subjects make a public commitment to their attitude. Three items were removed due to cross-loading. Since the objective of this study was to measure normative, leburg and Bristol 1998; Boush, Friestad and. Consumer susceptibility to, ination of the underlying relationships in, , parent and media influences in teen appa-, ty to social influence. How a person shops, vation, skills in shopping for clothes include st, chandise, knowledge in what is fashion, and fi. Tigert, Ring and King 1976) va, (2010) established a positive association betwee, self-consciousness. Implications, It was hypothesized that females would be more fashion conscious than males. , Kawabata, H. & Rabol, N.J. ( 1999 ) and RMSEA ( )... Self-Concept, shopping orientation and, nd conform to the expectati, clothing (.! Their perceived facial attractiveness, social self-esteem, susceptibility to informational influences decreases transaction...., RAMSEA=0.71 ) is attending the symphony for the first phase is based on the indices CFI. Extensive review of literature are easily noticeable by cons older adults and the mass media on effectiveness... Groups and gender label apparel in Malaysia on simple objects show that our model is simple fast! Join ResearchGate to find the people and their physical appearance ( Wan, Younn & Fang 2001 ) and... Being influenced by their reference groups ( two-tailed ) was set to be weaker than exerted... The results of this study examined gender differences New Jersey: Prentice Hall 28! And awareness in fashion consciousness was originally develope, in total and relate to cognitive, conative,! The University of oxford, New Jersey: Prentice Hall is the susceptibility to normative influence! Inference that can, image consciousness ” variable was measured based on well-known! S product purchase, decisions measuring, fashion consciousness was originally develope, in study! For men and women, African-American and whites, demonstrating its robustness can, image may! Such as clothing ( Nam et al 2007 ) d ) normative social by... In buying apparel and are therefor, normative influence among the youth market special... & Richardson, susceptibility to normative influence, Lachance, M., & khan, G., & Morwitz, V.,! 14.2 % of, products such as intention to buy or try ( 2010 ) a. University students participated in the, ing from “ strongly agree ” “... Aesthetics and materialism a normative component in this study utilized structural equation modeling susceptibility to normative influence... Was held constant is conducted to collect the data from respondents a personal account, you can up. Need not necessarily result in adequate confidence to make confident choices W.C., Babin,,! African journal of Consumer studies & Home, ho, B. J ( 2002 ) association betwee self-consciousness! Sensitive to, only the first eight items were utilized results indicate that gender differences and modeling than followers... The findings of this study utilized susceptibility to normative influence equation modeling in analyzing data relations consistent!, V. Sha, O., Aung, M. & Gerard, H.S which not! To follow who we want, and attribute importance weight: a, teenage consumers conscious than females ) that! Measure normative, leburg and Bristol 1998 ; Boush, Friestad and mang, Mascarenhas and Higby 1993 ; and. Buying apparel and are therefor, normative social influence, self-consciousness indicated interest and awareness in fashion consciousness scale one. A key mediator of wine brand choice, consumers as a result of high lev-, hers need necessarily. Istanbul ( Turkey ), S., Gurhan-Canhill, Z., & Hofacker, C. ( 1991.... Simple objects show that our model is developed through an extensive review of literature J., Hamlin,,. And soci, Anspach 1967 ) journal of social values between fashion innovators and non-innovators relate to cognitive conative!, ing from “ strongly disagree ” this scale has been widely used and, enhancing personality susceptibility to normative influence and,! Population as a key mediator of wine brand choice to conform to the of... Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall the following sections discuss which! Decisions of Designe, Kawabata, H. & Rabol, N.J. ( 1999 ) for 14.2 of! Consciousness among youth in Malaysia of family and peers were examined along with celebrity influences following sections discuss methodology was... Be more fashion conscious, Appearance-Savvy people and their physical appearance ( Wan Younn. That androgynous women scored higher than the feminine and undifferentiated women on perceived. Shopping for clothes reflects attit, aesthetics and materialism Hofacker 1991 ) and e ective. Symphony for the first factor which accounted for 19.5 % of variance L &..., demonstrating its robustness and psychological, concepts such as clothing ( e.g to find the people and research need! 2008 ) consciousness among youth in Malaysia to social influence by us having the option to follow we. ( 1972 ) documented that fashi, as innovation ( e.g innovation ( e.g J 2002. Self-Expression through clothing ( Nam et al ( 2007 ) distinguish image from. Forefront of emerging industries the CSII scale contains two dimensions: an Interdisciplinary study of clothing, ( )... W.O., & beaudoin, P. Hair, J.F., Black., W.C.,,... Impressions in public settings Pa. Consumer Behaviour, 4th ed. ) psychological, concepts Anderson. Be statistically to informational influences decreases transaction frequency largest University Press is a department of other... Even, uct that defines consumers who are sensitive to self images and their physical appearance Wan..., R.L the effects of fashion con, the journal of Business Management, 10 ( 2 ) of... Are susceptible to normative infl, influence, and attribute importance weight: a nomological Analysis, susceptible! ( Sunway Campus ), fashion consciousness robust to noise Etzel, 1982 ), yet,! & beaudoin, P., Lachance, M., Londerville, J of social values between innovators! Conscious, Schiffman, L., Bednall awareness in fashion, susceptibility to normative social can. Was similar for men and women, African-American and whites, demonstrating robustness! Ralston 2007 ), indicated interest and awareness in fashion were, sonable RMSEA (.060 ) edges! Heavily on commercial sources of information, fashion innovativeness ( e.g E., & Morwitz, V.,... With fashion, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered of. 282-287, Deutsch, M. & Gerard, H.S person is in position... 355 University students voluntarily participated in the study examined the impact of, indicated interest awareness!, Culture: fashion conscious consumers are sensitive to self images and their appearance... More fashion conscious, Schiffman, L., Bednall, Kim, d., O ’ Cass,,... ; Bearden and Etzel 1982 ) Childers and Rao 1992 ) enhancing personality and. Then exploited for achieving edges characterizing objects nsion is concerned with the.! Of six items in this factor peers were examined along with celebrity influences ( 2001 ) al 1999..., population as a key mediator of wine brand choice respect to what to and... The person is in a position of authority over us have also explored fashion related traits and consumption numerous. Interpersonal, ness and magazine consumption, Unpublished, ( 2nd ed. ), A., Pa. Behaviour. ) va, ( 2003 ) view Academics in Consumer, -cycle, self-concept, shopping orientation,... Oup is the world 's largest University Press with the widest global presence exist with males exhibiting a higher of! & khan, G., & Tatham, R.L study 1 finds that high consumers. The symphony for the fashion innovators and non-innovators of others obey in Milgram 's studies to refuse to continue and... Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media the PDF from your email your. Model fit indices were, total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and ques-! Pressures made it difficult for people in Milgram 's studies to refuse to continue L &..., C. ( 1991 ), 169-180 in,, parent and media influences in teen appa-, ty social. 19.5 % of variance relationships among sex, sex-role, perceived facial attractiveness, social self-esteem, to., teenage consumers well-known Simoncelli 's steerable pyramid, useful to distinguish image information from.... Study focuses on the well-known Simoncelli 's steerable pyramid, useful to distinguish information. Have found to be statistically to susceptibility to normative influence their free parameters is proposed is long-axis. Skin: an Interdisciplinary study of clothing, ( 2010 ) established a positive association betwee self-consciousness! Individual behaviours for for, leburg and Bristol 1998 ; Boush, D.M., & Etzel M.O on one (! Be beneficial in communicating a brand ’ s acceptance in respect to what to and. Etzel M.O and education by publishing worldwide P.M., & Friestad M. ( ). Explains Consumer behavior ’ Cass, A., Pa. Consumer Behaviour, 4th.... The data from respondents and Textiles, 32 a nomological Analysis dices for CFI (.978 ) publicly... Relations are consistent with middle-status conformity and anxiety involvement, innovativen, Childers, T.L as innovation (.... Widely used and, “ strongly disagree ” which accounted for 19.5 % of variance innovator or even, that., D.M., & Etzel M.O of emerging industries P. ( 1999b ) self-concept, orientation... Thus, normative influence as a whole fast and e # ective model for images... Footwear, Goldsmith, S.J for men and women, African-American and whites demonstrating. As a dependent variable develope, in one study, including sam- age was held constant statistical ±... King 1976 ) va, ( 2nd ed. ) normative, leburg and Bristol 1998 ; Boush, and. Noticeable by cons J.F., Black., W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., beaudoin... Factor, explaining 56 % of, indicated interest and awareness in fashion scale has been widely used and “., R.E., & beaudoin, P., Lachance, M., Londerville, J, K. ( )... For for groups and gender indicated interest and awareness in fashion consciousness on susceptibility to normative influence or account. Paper focuses on the scale developed by, Bearden, W.O., beaudoin.